M I L I T A R Y
H I S T O R Y
September 7, 1940
The German air force bombarded London for the first time during World War II. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler used the intense bombing to prepare for an eventual invasion of Britain. The air attacks, which continued for 57 consecutive nights, are commonly referred to in Britain's history as "the Blitz."
August 30, 1983
Lt. Col. Guion Bluford became the first African-American in space, one of a crew of five on the space shuttle Challenger. The space shuttle, launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida, stayed in orbit almost six days. This was the Challenger's third flight into space.
August 21, 1863
During the Civil War, confederate raider William Clarke Quantrill launched a raid on Lawrence, Kansas. Most of the town was burned, and 183 men and boys were killed.
Quantrill was killed in Kentucky in 1865.
August 19, 1960
The Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 5 was launched into Earth's orbit carrying two dogs named "Belka" (Squirrel) and "Strelka" (Little Arrow), along with various other small animals and plants. The following day the landing capsule was recovered and Belka and Strelka became the first living organisms to be recovered alive from space.
The former Soviet Union launched many animals into space in the late 1950s and 1960s.
August 14, 1935
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law a bill that established the Social Security Act. This act provided for the establishment of a Social Security Board to administer old age and survivors insurance. By signing the bill into law, Roosevelt fulfilled a 1932 campaign promise.
August 9, 1945
Three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the US bomber "Bock's Car" dropped a plutonium bomb called "Big Fat" on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. Its original target was the city of Kokura, but poor visibility and heavy clouds forced a change in destination. The explosion killed an estimated 70,000 people and destroyed half of the city.
August 9, 1974
Richard M. Nixon's resignation from the US presidency became effective at noon. Nixon, under threat of impeachment as a result of the Watergate scandal, became the first president to resign the presidency. He was succeeded by Vice President Gerald Ford.
Nixon announced his resignation the night before in a nationally televised speech.
April 13, 1943
President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. Inside the large dome of the memorial, Jefferson's immortal words are inscribed: "For I have sworn on the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man."
John Pope used Jefferson's own architectural sensibilities to design the memorial:
April 12, 1961
Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union became the first human in space when he made a 108-minute voyage around the Earth. Gagarin made his trip aboard the Soviet spacecraft Vostok I at a speed of 18,000 mph (28,800 kph). As pilot of the spaceship, he proved that humans could endure the rigors of lift-off, re-entry, and weightlessness.
Gagarin's extraordinary feat pushed the doors wide open to space exploration:
April 11, 1951
President Harry Truman fired Gen. Douglas MacArthur from his post as commander of UN forces in Korea. The dismissal followed MacArthur's public disclosure of Truman's refusal to allow him to bomb bases in China; Truman feared an escalation of the Korean War and a direct confrontation with China.
See the letter of dismissal written by Truman:
April 9, 1942
After combined forces of US and Filipino soldiers surrendered to Japan in Bataan, Philippines, more than 10,000 Americans and about 60,000 Filipinos were forced to march 55 miles (88 km) to Camp O'Donnell. The prisoners were starved and beaten, and those who fell, bayoneted. Between 5,000 and 11,000 died during the march.
The trek has become known as the "Bataan Death March":
April 7, 1712
One of the first major revolts of African slaves in the American British Colonies took place when about 20 slaves, armed with guns, set fire to houses in New York City. Nine whites were killed before the militia arrived to suppress the uprising. The city responded by executing 21 slaves, and six others committed suicide.
New York and Long Island had at the time the largest number of slaves in the North:
April 7, 1953
Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden was elected Secretary General of the United Nations, a post he retained until 1961 when he died in a plane accident in Congo. His tireless work included the organization of the first UN international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and his support for armistice agreements between Israel and the Arab States.
In 1961, Hammarskjold was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize:
April 5, 1614
While being a prisoner of English settlers in Jamestown, Pocahontas married colonist John Rolfe. Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, chief of the Algonquian Indian tribes. Their marriage brought temporary peace between settlers and Native Americans. In 1616, Pocahontas went with Rolfe to England where she died, probably due to a respiratory illness.
Pocahontas was buried at a churchyard in Gravesend, England:
April 5, 1955
Winston Churchill, the leader who helped guide Great Britain through World War II, retired as Prime Minister of Great Britain. A master diplomat, military strategist, and writer, Churchill was Britain's Prime Minister in two different occasions, and then in 1953 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Churchill was one of the most important political leaders of the 20th century:
April 3, 1860
The Pony Express was inaugurated when the first rider left St. Joseph, Missouri, and headed west. The idea was to deliver letters in 10 days or less between Missouri and California. Before the Pony Express, the fastest delivery service between the East and West Coast was by ship around South America.
With the advent of the telegraph, the Pony Express ceased operations in 1861:
March 23, 1775
US revolutionary and lawyer Patrick Henry delivered a moving speech for arming the Virginia militia against the English in Richmond, Virginia. During his speech he said, "I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death."
Henry became known as "the Orator of Liberty":
March 16, 1966
The spacecraft Gemini 8 executed the first docking of orbiting spacecraft. After docking, one of Gemini's thrusters started to malfunction. To avoid further problems, the mission was aborted and the crew members, Neil Armstrong and David Scott, made an emergency landing in the Pacific Ocean.
Photographs of Gemini 8 and its crew members:
January 29, 1891
Following the death of her brother, King Kalakaua, Lydia Liliuokalani was proclaimed queen of the Hawaiian Islands. Queen Liliuokalani sought to restore the monarchy's traditional authority in defiance of US investors and sugar planters. With the support of US Marines, Sanford Dole staged a coup against the queen in 1893 and took over the government.
Queen Liliuokalani was the last monarch of Hawaii:
January 29, 1979
In a historic meeting between China and the US, Chinese Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping met with US President Jimmy Carter and signed scientific and cultural exchange accords. A member of the Communist Party from its beginnings, Deng participated in the Long March of the 1930s. A repressive leader, he oversaw the Tiananmen Massacre. Deng, who died in 1997, was the most powerful Chinese leader since.
January 27, 1973
The Vietnam War officially ended when the US and North Vietnam, along with South Vietnam and the Viet Cong, signed an "Agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam." Signed in Paris, it took effect the following day. However, fighting continued and it was not until 1975 that North Vietnamese forces captured Saigon thus ending the war.
The Vietnam War was the longest war in US history:
January 24, 1972
Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi was discovered in Guam after having spent 28 years hiding in the jungle thinking World War II was still going on. Yokoi survived from a bare diet of nuts, berries, frogs, snails, and rats, and wove his clothing from tree bark. Received as a national hero by the Japanese people, his first words upon arriving in Tokyo were, "It is with much embarrassment that I return."
Yokoi became known as the "man who never surrendered":
January 19, 1983
Klaus Barbie, the Nazi Gestapo chief in Lyon, France, during the German occupation, was arrested in Bolivia on charges of having tortured and killed thousands of people, including Jean Moulin, a leading member of the French Resistance. After World War II, Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany, and then served as a torturer for regimes in Bolivia and Peru.
Barbie was tried in 1987 and died in prison in 1991:
January 17, 1966
In one of the worst accidents involving nuclear weapons, a US B-52 bomber carrying four hydrogen bombs collided with its refueling plane over Palomares, Spain, killing 8 people. Two of the bombs exploded against the ground, releasing radioactive plutonium. To protect human lives, 1,400 tons of topsoil were removed and sent to South Carolina.
One of the bombs fell in the Mediterranean Sea:
January 10, 1920
The League of Nations, an international body designed to avoid war among nations, came into being. Created by the Allied Powers at the end of World War I, the League was originally formed by 50 nations (the US never joined). It became discredited when it was unable to prevent Japan's expansion into Manchuria and China, Italy's conquest of Ethiopia, and Hitler's rejection of the Versailles Treaty.
The League of Nations was dissolved at the end of World War II:
January 1, 1892
Ellis Island, the main port of entry for immigrants on the eastern coast of the US, began to operate. Located in the New York Bay, over the next six decades more than 20 million immigrants passed through its stations. It was also a main point of deportation. In 1932 alone, more than 20,000 people were deported back to Europe.
Ellis Island closed down as an immigration center in 1954:
January 1, 1959
Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro and his troops seized power in Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista fled the country. During the first three decades of the revolution, social programs were implemented that virtually eradicated poverty and illiteracy in Cuba. Political repression and deteriorating social and economic conditions have prompted thousands of Cubans to seek refuge in the US.
More on Cuba:
December 29, 1890
The US 7th Cavalry and Indian mercenaries massacred about 300 Lakota men, women, and children led by chief leader Big Foot at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. The attack on the Indian camp resulted from the efforts of government troops to suppress the "Ghost Dance," a ceremonial practice that called for a Messiah that would restore the Native American way of life.
Big Foot died in the attack:
December 28, 1942
US Congress officially recognized the "Pledge of Allegiance." The original pledge, composed in 1892 by Christian Socialist Francis Bellamy, read: "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." Against Bellamy's wishes, the words "the flag of the United States of America" were added, along with "under God."
More on the history of the Pledge:
December 19, 1989
In an illegal operation called "Just Cause," the US military invaded Panama in an attempt to seize leader Manuel Noriega under charges of drug trafficking and restoring democracy. Although US reports claimed that only a few hundred people died during the invasion, independent reports estimated that between 2,500 and 4,000 Panamanians lost their lives.
Two different views on the Panama invasion:
December 17, 1969
The US Air Force closed its Project Blue Book after concluding that there was no evidence of extraterrestrial spaceships behind thousands of sightings of UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects). The project had been opened in 1947 (under the name Sign) to investigate a growing number of UFO reports by reputable individuals.
In 1998 a privately-run Project Blue Book Center opened in Indiana:
December 15, 1890
Lakota Indian leader Sitting Bull (Indian name Tatanka-Iyotanka) was killed in South Dakota by Indian police sent to arrest him. The government wanted him captured because they feared that he would join the Ghost Dance movement, a Messianic religion which preached that all Indians would soon be free.
Sitting Bull united the Sioux tribes in their struggle for survival:
December 13, 1937
In one of the worst atrocities of World War II, Japanese troops invaded the Chinese city of Nanking (at the time China's capital) and over the following few months killed nearly 370,000 Chinese civilians. The violent episode has become known as the "Rape of Nanking" because about 80,000 women of all ages were raped by Japanese soldiers.
"The Rape of Nanking" by Shi Young and James Yin is a new book on the subject:
December 10, 1898
The Treaty of Paris, which officially ended the Spanish-American War, was signed between the United States and Spain. The treaty gave the US possession of Puerto Rico, Guam, and for $20 million the Philippines. The treaty was vigorously opposed in the U.S. Senate as inaugurating a policy of imperialism toward the Philippines.
Filipino leader Felipe Agoncillo attacked the treaty as "unjust":
December 7, 1934
US Pilot Wiley Post made history when he reached a record altitude of 50,000 feet while wearing a pressurized space suit that he developed himself. Post's suit design was essentially the same as that of the space suits worn 35 years later by astronauts going to the moon.
Wiley Post accomplished several aviation feats:
December 5, 1945
Five U.S. Navy bombers took off from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on a routine training mission never to be seen again. The unexplained disappearance, believed to have been caused by environmental factors and human error, became part of the legend of the Bermuda Triangle, an area bounded by Bermuda, Miami, and Puerto Rico where ships and planes seemed to vanish mysteriously.
More on the Bermuda Triangle and the "Lost Squadron":
November 22, 1935
A Martin 130 airplane called the "China Clipper" began regular trans-Pacific mail service. The plane, powered by four engines and piloted by Cap. Edwin Musick, departed from San Francisco, and it reached Manila almost 60 hours later. About 200,000 people watched the historic take-off.
A photo of the China Clipper as it crossed the Golden Gate Bridge (then under construction):
November 19, 1863
At the dedication ceremony for a cemetery for Union soldiers at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address, commonly considered one of the finest speeches ever uttered by a US politician. Lincoln articulated an eloquent memorial to the thousands of Union soldiers who fell on the battlefields of Gettysburg, and argued that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
The only known photograph of Lincoln at the dedication ceremony in Gettysburg:
November 15, 1969
The largest anti-war rally in US history occurred as 250,000 persons gathered in Washington D.C. to protest the Vietnam War. Drawing people from all over the US, the March was organized by a group called "the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam," a broad coalition of over 100 anti-War groups that included students, housewives, professionals, and even military personnel and Vietnam Veterans.
A photograph of the anti-war rally:
November 11, 1918
World War I ended when Germany, bereft of manpower, supplies and food, signed an armistice agreement. The war's tolls were at least 10 million dead, 6 million of them civilians, and 21 million wounded. One of the points of contention of the armistice, from the US side, was that it allowed Germany to surrender without accepting defeat.
More on World War I:
November 11, 1982
Paying homage to US soldiers who served in the Vietnam War, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. Designed by 21-year old Maya Ying Lin, the long-awaited memorial is a simple black granite wall, inscribed with the names of over 58,000 Americans who died in the conflict. Initially opposed by many veterans' groups, public opinion shifted as people began walking along the black reflective wall and realizing the almost sacred nature of the memorial.
The wall brought together those who fought and those who marched against the war:
November 6, 1860
Abraham Lincoln was elected the sixteenth president of the US over a heavily divided Democratic Party, and was the first Republican to win the presidency. By the time of his presidential inauguration, seven southern states seceded and the Confederate States of America was established. One month later, the American Civil War began.
A visit to the Lincoln Museum:
November 5, 1942
The turning point in World War II came in the North African desert, when Allied forces led by British Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery defeated the Axis troops led by German General Erwin Rommel. The battle, known as El Alamein (near Alexandria, Egypt), ended when the Axis army retreated and 27,000 of its soldiers were made prisoners.
More on the Battle of El Alamein:
November 2, 1947
The mammoth flying boat commonly known as the "Spruce Goose," then the world's largest airplane, made its first and only flight over Long Beach Harbor, California. Designed, built, and flown by Howard Hughes and his team of engineers, the 200-ton plywood craft was constructed at a time when the US wanted to impose its military superiority.
Photographs of the Spruce Goose:
October 25, 1983
In a military intervention deplored worldwide, the U.S. invaded the Caribbean Island of Grenada for the avowed purpose of defending U.S. medical students and restoring law and order. Grenada's leftist military had deposed its prime minister on October 13th and established military rule on the island.
More on the political reasons behind the U.S. invasion:
October 24, 1945
The United Nations was officially founded when the UN charter was ratified by delegates of the 50 original signatory nations. The name "United Nations" was devised by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In 1971 October 24th was declared "United Nations Day" and it was recommended that this day be observed as a public holiday by UN member states.
Today there are 188 member states:
October 14, 1947
The research airplane Bell X-1, piloted by U.S. Capt. Charles Yeager, became the first aircraft to successfully exceed the speed of sound. Before the X-1, when jets reached subsonic speeds, they would become uncontrollable. Thanks to an improved design, the X-1 reached speeds of up to 970 mph without causing the pilot to lose control of the plane.
More on the bullet-shaped aircraft:
October 5, 1877
After marching for more than 1,400 miles and confronting 2,000 US soldiers along the way, Chief Joseph surrendered with starving remnant of Nez Perce people. Chief Joseph was best known for his resistance to the US Government's attempts to force his tribe onto reservations. The Nez Perce was a peaceful nation that spread from Idaho to Washington State.
In his surrender speech he said, "From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever":
October 3, 1952
The first British atomic bomb was detonated on the Monte Bello Islands, Australia, becoming the third country in the world to employ the destructive weapon. The device tested was a plutonium implosion bomb similar to "Fat Man," one of the bombs dropped over Japan by the US.
British physicist William Penney led the team that developed the first British bomb:
September 24, 1957
Federal troops were sent to Little Rock, Arkansas, to protect nine Black students at their newly integrated Central High School. The nine students had been prevented earlier that month from entering Central High by the Arkansas National Guard. Due to intense opposition, full integration at public schools in Arkansas was not completed until 1972.
The nine students became known as the "Little Rock Nine":
September 24, 1929
The first all-instrument flight took place in New York when Lt. James H. Doolittle guided a Consolidated NY2 Biplane over Mitchell Field. Before the use of instruments, pilots guided themselves using a sophisticated knowledge of astronomy and geography.
More on James Doolittle:
September 17, 1972
M*A*S*H, one of the most widely viewed TV sitcoms, made its debut. Set during the Korean War, the show followed the lives of doctors and nurses on the war front with both humor and pathos. The initials stood for "Mobile Army Surgical Hospital." The series ran until 1983.
M*A*S*H has been one of the funniest sitcoms of US television:
September 17, 1787
The Constitution of the United States of America was signed by delegates from twelve states at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The US Constitution is the world's oldest working Constitution.
Photographs of the original Constitution:
September 14, 1847
Mexico City was occupied by US troops after the defeated forces of Gen. Santa Anna were forced to abandon the city. The day before, young Mexican cadets had tried unsuccessfully to defend the fortified hill of Chapultepec. With the occupation of Mexico City, the US-Mexico conflict virtually came to an end.
While some call the 1846-48 period the "Mexican War," others call it the "US Invasion":
http://www.lnstar.com/mall/texasinfo/mexicow.htm http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/dialogues/prelude/manifest/ d2geng.html
September 8, 1565
Spanish explorers led by Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine in Florida, the first permanent European settlement in North America. St. Augustine was founded 42 years before the English settlement of Jamestown in Virginia.
More on the history of St. Augustine:
September 5, 1877
Sioux chief Crazy Horse was fatally bayoneted by a US soldier after resisting arrest at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. A year earlier, Crazy Horse had led combined Sioux-Cheyenne forces to victory over George A. Custer's troops at the Battle of Little Bighorn, Montana. Crazy Horse was killed when he was only 34 years of age.
"My lands are where my dead lie buried," said Crazy Horse once:
September 4, 1886
Legendary Apache leader Geronimo surrendered to Gen. Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, ending the last major US-Indian conflict. Miles lied to Geronimo, promising him that he would be reunited with his family and that the US would grant him a pardon for his actions. Instead, he was made a prisoner of war and banned from his homeland, Arizona.
An image of Geronimo:
September 3, 1783
The Paris Peace Treaty was signed between the US and Great Britain, officially ending the American Revolutionary War for independence. The treaty was signed by David Hartley (representing Great Britain) and by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay (representing the United States).
John Jay would later become Governor of the State of New York:
September 1, 1939
Germany invaded Poland with 1.8 million troops, beginning World War II. The invasion took place one week after the governments of Germany and the Soviet Union signed a secret pact of non-aggression. Two days after the invasion, England and France declared war on Germany.
Images of Poland's invasion:
August 24, 1814
British troops invaded the city of Washington and burned the White House, the Capitol, and other public buildings. President James Madison and other high government officials fled to safety until British troops (not knowing the strength of their position) left the city two days later. The invasion was a part of the War of 1812 between the US and Great Britain.
Military actions that preceded the invasion of Washington:
August 22, 1942
After a U-boat (German submarine) sunk several Brazilian ships, Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy during World War II. Two years later Brazil sent the "Brazilian Expeditionary Force" to Italy, the only South American country to send combat forces to Europe.
Image of the "National Monument to the Dead of WW II" in Rio de Janeiro:
August 14, 1842
The second of three Seminole wars, usually referred to as the "Second Seminole War", ended with the forced relocation of most Seminoles from Florida to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The war, which lasted for seven years, pitted between 3,000 to 5,000 poorly armed warriors against more than 200,000 US troops.
The Seminoles resisted successive attacks by white soldiers and settlers:
August 13, 1961
During the Cold War, the government of the East German Democratic Republic started to build a wall to divide the city of Berlin in two. With the Wall, the East German government prevented East Germans from fleeing into the non-Communist west. The Wall remained in place for almost three decades.
Images of the Wall during the 1960s:
August 7, 1782
A badge of military honor, known as the "Purple Heart," was established by General George Washington. The Purple Heart is awarded to any civilian or member of the armed forces who is wounded or killed in action. The badge consists of a purple heart bordered with gold, with a bust of Washington in the middle.
More on the Purple Heart:
August 6, 1945
At 8:15 am, local time, a US plane dropped an atomic bomb named "Little Boy" over Hiroshima, Japan. The bomb exploded about 1,800 ft. (600 m) above ground, killing more than 100,000 civilians and devastating the city. At least 100,000 more people died later due to radiation exposure. It was the first time in history that such a devastating weapon was used by any nation.
The Atomic Bomb Dome is one of the memorials of the destruction: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/retain.html
August 3, 1958
The submarine USS Nautilus began the first crossing of the Arctic Ocean under ice cap. With a crew of 116 men, the Nautilus was commanded by William R. Anderson. The Nautilus was the world's first nuclear powered submarine.
Tour the USS Nautilus:
July 30 1956
The motto "In God We Trust" was adopted as the US national motto by President Dwight Eisenhower. The phrase, originally printed on US coins during the Civil War, was adopted as the national motto in part as a response to the growing influence of the Soviet Union around the world.
History of the adoption of "In God We Trust":
July 26, 1945
The "Potsdam Declaration," an agreement calling for the unconditional surrender of Japan, was signed by leaders from the United States, Great Britain, and China in Potsdam, Germany. Two days later, the Japanese Prime Minister Admiral Kantaro Suzuki rejected the Potsdam Declaration.
The declaration was part of the Potsdam Conference, the last of the major meetings during World War II:
July 22, 1975
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee had his US citizenship restored by Congress-nearly 110 years after he applied for citizen status. Although Lee applied for amnesty and signed an oath of allegiance to the US shortly after his surrender in 1865, his documents got lost and were not recovered until the 1970s.
More on Robert E. Lee:
July 21, 1930
The Veterans Administration was established by Executive Order 5398 as an independent agency under the President. It was succeeded in 1989 by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), an executive department which is now headed by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
July 3, 1988
The US Navy warship USS Vincennes mistakenly shot down Iran Air flight 655, destroying the plane and killing all 290 passengers and crew aboard. The Vincennes, boasting the world's most sophisticated radar detection equipment, mistook the civilian airbus for a hostile F-14 fighter jet. A military inquiry blamed the disaster on human failure.
More on the disaster:
July 1, 1863
The Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania), one of the Civil War's most crucial combats, began. In the battle Confederate troops led by General Robert E. Lee fought against Union troops led by Gen. George Meade. The battle ended three days later when Confederate troops were forced to retreat back to Virginia.
An account of the three days of battle:
June 28, 1919
Germany and the Allied forces signed the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I. The treaty, named for the royal palace outside of Paris where it was negotiated, established new national boundaries and demanded that Germany pay large sums for war damage and accept all blame for the war.
The terms of the treaty have been considered controversial:
June 25, 1876
Lt. Col. George A. Custer and more than 200 federal troops of the 7th Cavalry lost their lives in what became known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn, or Custer's Last Stand. The battle, which took place after the 7th Calvary attacked a large camp of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians, was part of a governmental effort to remove Indian groups from Southern Montana.
Kate Bighead, a Cheyenne woman, participated in the battle:
June 22, 1944
The GI Bill of Rights was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. One of the most important governmental measures of the post-World-War-II era, the bill was designed to provide greater opportunities for returning war veterans. An important result of the bill was the training of almost 8 million veterans.
More on the GI Bill of Rights:
June 20, 1782
Congress approved the design of the Great Seal made by Charles Thomson, first US official record keeper. He made his drawing out ofprevious designs drawn by three congressional committees. It was Thomson who gave the eagle the prominent position it has today.
More on Thomson's designs:
June 14, 1846
In what became known as the Bear Flag Revolt, California was declared an independent republic. A group of American rebels took over the headquarters of Mexican Governor Mariano Vallejo in Sonoma, California. California's independence ended 25 days later when the US army occupied the city of Monterey, and declared California as part of the US. The rebels' flag was later adopted as the official flag of the state of California.
June 13, 1777
The French soldier Marquis de Lafayette (whose given name was Gilbert du Mothier) landed in the United States to aid the former colonies against Great Britain. His military career spanned five decades, during which he was a French Musketeer, a commander of American troops, and an anti-Bourdon revolutionary leader.
More on Lafayette's life:
June 6, 1944
D-DAY * the Allied forces began the invasion of Normandy, France, during World War II. The assault was led by the largest invasion fleet in history - 1,200 fighting ships, 10,000 planes, and more than 150,000 soldiers. The successful landing was hailed as the beginning of the end of Nazi Germany.
Images of D-Day:
May 30, 1868
Memorial Day became an officially sanctioned holiday when military commander John A. Logan chose May 30 to remember the soldiers who had died during the Civil War. He called it "Decoration Day" after the custom in several Confederate and Union states of decorating the soldiers' graves with flowers.
Over the years, the observance was extended to commemorate all US soldiers killed in war:
May 23, 1901
U.S. Forces captured Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo. He had been a leader of the pro-independence movement against Spain, and then took up arms against the United States when the US government failed to recognize Filipino independence.
Aguinaldo was a complex figure who at different times opposed and collaborated with the US:
May 13, 1846
Congress declared war against Mexico. US President James Polk had presented his war message before Congress two days earlier. The war declaration was vigorously opposed by abolitionists who saw the war as a ploy to extend slavery.
Abraham Lincoln, at the time a member of congress, voted against the war:
May 11, 1862
The Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia was destroyed by Confederate forces to prevent its capture by Union troops. The Virginia was built from the salvaged hull of the USS Merrimack. Two months prior to its destruction, the Virginia fought several Union ships in what became known as "The Battle of Hampton Roads."
More on the famous naval battle:
April 19, 1775
The first battle of the American Revolutionary War started when British and American soldiers exchanged fire in Lexington and Concord (Massachusetts). More than 650 British soldiers were sent to suppress rebellious colonists who had taken up on arms against the Crown.
This was the first revolutionary battle in which British soldiers were killed:
April 14, 1775
The first abolition society in America was established. The "Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage" was organized in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.
A 1791 anti-slavery announcement:
April 9, 1865
In the US Civil War, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant. The terms of the surrender were agreed by both parties at a meeting held in Appomattox Court House in Virginia. With the acceptance of the surrender, the bloodiest war in US history was nearly at an end.
The terms for the surrender were written by General Grant:
April 6, 1917
The United States entered World War I by declaring war against Germany. Just four days before, President Woodrow Wilson had delivered his war message before Congress urging it to end US neutrality. "The world must be made safe for democracy," were Wilson's famous words.
Biography of Woodrow Wilson:
March 16, 1968
A company of angry American soldiers entered the South Vietnamese village of My Lai. Commanded by Lt. William Calley, they came in shooting. More than 300 unarmed villagers were killed in what came to be known as the "My Lai Massacre."
My Lai was a critical factor in growing US anti-war sentiment:
March 9, 1862
During the United States Civil War, two ironclad warships, the "Monitor" and the "Virginia" (formerly the "Merrimack"), attacked each other for five hours in a channel near Chesapeake Bay. The result was a draw, but the battle changed naval combat forever.
The encounter marked the end of the use of wooden warships:
March 5, 1770
A crowd of jeering Boston citizens faced a troop of British soldiers. The soldiers opened fire, and five people were killed. The incident, which became known as the "Boston Massacre," created strong anti-British sentiment.
Accounts of the Boston Massacre:
March 4, 1861
Faced with an unprecedented threat of civil war, Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office as president of the United States. Two weeks earlier Jefferson Davis had been inaugurated as president of the Confederacy.
In Lincoln's inaugural address, he promised to uphold the Constitution:
February 28, 1983
The last episode of M*A*S*H, one of the most popular TV shows of all time, aired on CBS. A record 125 million viewers watched as the beloved, dark comedy series about a military hospital camp in Korea came to a poignant end.
A M*A*S*H site by a devoted fan:
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219 East Route 66
Williams, AZ 86046
OUR GUARANTEE -
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It's simple, its a NO RISK 15 Day Guarantee !
We will correct your order immediately, for whatever reason,
and re - ship the following day on any order up to $ 100. 00.
We will refund your money the same day the " items " are returned.
The above guarantee does not include customer errors.
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Quick Return Tags
- The Original Military Dog Tag Site -